References are given in your text by including the surname of the author and the date that the idea was first published. If it is a direct quote, you should also include the page number.
- In examining Gandhi's search for Absolute Truth and post-modern perspectives, Salla (1996, p.43) concludes that there can be no non-violent future, only a non-violent present.
- Gandhi's philosophy of non-violence was essentially a philosophy of action, a means of resolving conflict and creating a just society free of violence. "By non-violence Gandhi means … the technique of conducting social relations characterised by constructive peaceful attitudes …" (Bondurant 1988, p.193). For Gandhi, this meant living a life of 'truth'.
- "The distinctions [between individual and collective violence] are helpful in so far as they make violence against women visible and connect different forms of violence to structures of domination" (Tolhurst 1997, p.10).
- Gandhi believed that tapasya (self suffering) had its greatest value when one is in a position to do harm, but refuses to do so … While suffering love was an important function of Satyagraha, it had its limits. However, Abhaya (fearlessness), as Sharma (1987) contends, was critical to Gandhi's philosophy.
- “When killing is viewed not only as permissible but heroic behaviour sanctioned by one's government or cause, the distinction between taking a human life and other forms of impermissible violence get lost” (Cambridge Women's Peace Collective 1984, p.227).
- "Gandhi thought that exact truthfulness follows real fearlessness and that when man abandons truth in any way, he does so owing to fear in some shape or form" (Iyer 1973, p.180 cited in Sharma 1987, p.47).
- If writing, even occasionally, causes you grief and misery, you are in very respectable company. Publius Vergilius Maro, otherwise known as Virgil, started his epic poem, the Aeneid, in 29 B.C. and continued writing it until 19 B.C. That is an average of a line a day for eleven years, and even then it was not finished (Klauser 1987, p.7).
You will have noticed that there are two ways of writing the reference in-text. Either you can write it at the end of the quote, paraphrase or summary or you can write the author’s surname as part of the sentence.